Posts Tagged 'style'

Citation 2.0: How to Quickly and Easily Create Citations

At a time when concerns over intellectual property and plagiarism are (thankfully) at a fever pitch, is constructing a citation or bibliography still more of a headache than a pleasure? It doesn’t have to be! Web 2.0 and citation software has wiped away those dark times when the average student would have to consult a manual of style. (For easy-to-use, but non-authoritative manuals for ALA, MLA, Chicago, and CSE/CBE, check out Diana Hacker’s website, Research and Documentation Online.)

Web-based citation generation is one of the most prolific new ways to quickly nab a citation. In most cases, these services are free and intuitive to use. OttoBib only requires a user to plug in ISBNs and select one (of five) citations styles for output. Pros include that you can bulk generate by inputting multiple ISBNs separated by commas. Cons include the fact that you don’t know where citations are coming from, they are often incomplete or incorrect, and that OttoBib can only generate citations for books. A superior alternative to this is WorldCat. Simply find the record of the document you wish to cite. You can either copy and paste – click “Cite this Item” to select from five styles – or export to EndNote or RefWorks. (More on those big players later.) The best thing about WorldCat is that OCLC’s cataloging records (from which the citations are drawn) are almost always pristine, ensuring a quality citation time and again. Many databases, such as Credo Reference, also provide citations in a manner similar to WorldCat.

Calvin College’s KnightCite – designed in 2004 by Justin Searls – is slightly more time consuming that WorldCat, but allows users to cite a wide variety of materials: websites, journal articles, encyclopedias, images, etc. (KnightCite FAQ) Text input is manual. However, the website formats everything. Value added features include the ability to switch between styles without losing your current citation information, add more authors/editors/translators dynamically, and register (which opens “the door to creating free, accurate, and complete bibliographies that are easy to manage, organize, and export into the most popular text formats”). (KnightCite Registration)

There are two major contenders when it comes to citation and bibliography software: RefWorks and Endnote. The former, as a web-based subscription system, is popularly thought of as easier to use and has extensive online training materials. However, the latter has a strong hold on the sciences and may be the more prudent financial choice: EndNote carries a one-time fee, while RefWorks has an annual subscription fee of $100 dollars. (RefWorks) Most Universities offer both programs for free or at a discount. Once a student graduates they will have EndNote until it is outdated, but unless they start paying that subscription fee RefWorks will not allow them to add to or manipulate their bibliographies. An excellent chart comparing the two, created by Christina Woo and Susan Jones, can be found here (PDF, 32 KB).

Free, web-based bibliographic tools and for-profit apps all have their pitfalls: Neither type may be able to render an APA citation properly because of the style’s strict capitalization rules. Similarly, people generating on a citation-by-citation basis may ignore the rules of constructing a final bibliography. (Should there be a hanging indent? A dash instead of a surname? Ibid?) Often, students are at the mercy of the hidden records used to generate citations. As they say, garbage in, garbage out. (I was burned when importing sloppy MARC records using RefWorks.) Also, instructors and journals often have very specific standards for citing material; bibliographic tools very rarely have output options this specific. In the end, to create the best bibliography possible, it is important to have a firm understanding of the style in which you are working.

However, to jump easily to a half-way point, go ahead and familiarize yourself with these tools. I personally use WorldCat and KnightCite for most of my bibliographies. When I have to construct a very large bibliography, I recommend EndNote over RefWorks.


    Carolyn Ulrich, Library Luminary

    Libraries Luminaries is a feature that aims to increase the visibility of and promote discussion about the founders and innovators within the field of library and information science. Today’s personality: Carolyn Farquhar Ulrich (1880-1969).

    Imagine a woman described as “absolutely correct in taste and style” with a “cultivated voice” and “goodlooking appearance”. (Wiegand 137) One might assume this woman was a celebrity. In fact, it was a librarian: Carolyn Ulrich, the originator of Ulrich’s Periodicals Index. Ulrich’s excellence in regard to her person as reflected in this peer evaluation – an echo of Samuel Green’s ideal female library worker – correlates to her overarching achievements in the field of serials librarianship.

    Education and career:

    Little is known of Ulrich’s early and personal life. However, biographers do know that she was born in Oakland California on August 16, 1880. She attended high school in Brooklyn NY, where she exhibited a fondness for languages. This type of eclecticism, driven solely by an intellectual impulse, typifies the life of Ulrich. After graduating she applied and was accepted into the Pratt Institute’s art program, but stayed with this course of study for only for one year. According to Wiegand, Ulrich’s interest in librarianship was cultivated at the turn of the century. (136) Sans formal training, Ulrich became an assistant at the Brooklyn Public Library in 1906. She would remain in this position until 1912, when she was promoted to 1st assistant. Between 1912 and 1914 Ulrich completed courses in literature, Chinese, and Japanese art at Columbia and NYU. However, recognizing a New Woman-esque need for further education in her chosen profession, Ulrich joined the ALA in 1916 and matriculated into Pratt’s library certificate program in April of 1917. During her education, Ulrich was recognized for her aptitude in “executive work and organizing”. (Wiegand 137)

    Upon her graduation in 1918, Ulrich became the Chief of the circulation department and branches of the Bridgeport Public Library in CT. The library’s 1919 annual report revealed increased circulation due to her organizational changes. Her job requirements also involved binding, an asset to her future career in periodicals. (Wiegand 137) During this time Ulrich also founded programs that resonate with the socio-historic era in which she moved; she developed traveling libraries for factory workers and Americanization classes for immigrants. From Bridgeport, Ulrich returned to New York City in 1920 to head NYPL’s circulation department. Two years later she was promoted to Chief of Periodicals, a position that she held until her retirement on April 30, 1946.

    Carolyn Farquhar Ulrich (1880-1969)
    Carolyn Ulrich. (Patterson 79)

    Contributions to Library Science:

    Ulrich’s legacy cannot be reduced to her education or the posts she held. Rather, one must examine her interaction with the profession. In 1920 she served as an assistant instructor and lecturer in several library schools. Active in the ALA, she attended many conferences and often gave speeches. One such occurred in 1926 on the “Future of Periodical Work” and was addressed to the ALA’s Periodical Roundtable. Ulrich would later chair this Roundtable between 1927 and ‘28; in the former year she spoke on the topic of “A Current Periodicals Room in A Metropolis”. Ulrich’s involvement with the ALA would continue to flourish. In 1931 she served as the Acting Chair of the ALA’s Periodicals Section and in 1935, three years after the first edition of Ulrich’s was published, she aptly served as the chair of the Joint Committee on the Standardization of Periodicals. This focus on connecting information seekers with periodical information would continue. In 1941 Ulrich addressed “Some Problems Presented by Current Development in the Periodicals Field” at the Boston ALA conference. (138) Many of Ulrich’s speeches were later published in scholarly journals. Although not known for her writings, she was a prolific author and wrote on many topics. At the height of her career in the early forties, Ulrich was also serving as the chair of the ALA’s Serials Section, the representative from the American Standards Association, and was the liaison between the ASA and ALA to the International Standards Association Committee on Documentation. (Wiegand 138) In 1947, Ulrich edited the fifth edition of her eponymous index, the “postwar edition”; this was to be the last version she contributed to. (138) Ulrich died on 22 November 1969 at the home she shared with Marion Cutter in Winter Park, FL. (Wiegand 138, AB Bookman’s Weekly) When her obituary appeared in AB Bookman’s Weekly, an large advertisement for the 13th edition of Ulrich’s was only a few pages away. See the ad here. (AB Bookman’s Weekly 120)

    Carolyn Ulrich was a vibrant, intellectually rigorous woman. Her personal quest for knowledge has taken on many forms, as evinced by her lifelong interactions with Art and languages. Ulrich’s work in the field of library science still resonates within the communities thanks to her magnum opus, Ulrich’s Periodicals Index, with which “her name is forever bound”. (AB Bookman’s Weekly 122) This priceless periodical reference tool has taken on several incarnations in its path from Ulrich’s ink-and-paper brainchild to the contemporary electronic database Ulrichsweb.

    • AB Bookman’s Weekly 45 (January 19, 1970): 120, 122.
    • Patterson, C. D. “Origins of systematic serials control: remembering Carolyn Ulrich“. Reference Services Review 16, no. 1-2 (1988): 79-92. (Note: The image in this post came from the print copy of this article. The online version does not reproduce said image.)
    • Wiegand, Wayne A., ed. Supplement to the Dictionary of American Library Biography. 1990. Englewood, Col.: Libraries Unlimited. 136-138.
    Further Reading: